1 head cauliflower, whole, stem trimmed and leaves removed
2 1/2 cups dry white wine
1/3 cup olive oil plus more for serving
1/4 cup kosher salt
3 tablespoons fresh lemon juice
2 tablespoons unsalted butter
1 tablespoon crushed red pepper flakes (or to taste)
1 tablespoon sugar
1 bay leaf
Coarse sea salt (for serving)
Heat oven to 475° F. Bring wine, oil, salt, lemon juice, butter, red pepper flakes, sugar, bay leaf, and 8 cups water to a boil in a large pot. Carefully lower in cauliflower, reduce heat, and simmer, turning occasionally, until a knife easily inserts into center, 15 to 20 minutes.
Using 2 slotted spoons or a mesh strainer or spider, transfer cauliflower to a rimmed baking sheet or roasting pan, draining well. (Reserve stock for another use, such as risotto).
Roast, rotating pan halfway through, until brown all over, 30 to 40 minutes. Transfer cauliflower to a plate. Drizzle with oil; sprinkle with sea salt. Serve with whipped goat cheese (recipe below).
Whipped Goat Cheese
4 ounces fresh goat cheese
3 ounces cream cheese
3 ounces feta cheese
1/3 cup heavy cream
2 tablespoons olive oil plus more for serving
Blend goat cheese, cream cheese, feta, cream, and 2 tablespoons olive oil in a food processor until smooth; season with sea salt. Transfer whipped goat cheese to a serving bowl and drizzle with olive oil.
Note: Whipped goat cheese can be made one day ahead. Cover and chill in the refrigerator.