4 bay leaves
8 whole cloves
1 teaspoon coriander seeds (or 1/2 teaspoon ground)
2 teaspoon cumin seeds (or 1 teaspoon ground)
1 teaspoon fennel seeds
4 star anise
1 teaspoon annatto powder
1/2 teaspoon cayenne pepper (or to taste)
1 teaspoon garlic powder
1 teaspoon ground nutmeg
2 teaspoon ground cinnamon
3 tablespoons ground turmeric
Heat a non-stick pan over medium heat.
Toast whole spices for 30-45 seconds by placing them in the hot pan and occasionally shake the pan or stir the spices with a wooden spoon or chopsticks to prevent them from burning.
Place whole spices in an electric spice/coffee grinder and grind to a fine powder.
Add the powdered spices to the grinder and pulse for a few seconds to mix well.
Store in airtight container away from direct sunlight.